A Cool breeze softly touches your face as you cross Laadawar of Matanni and then Khoh-i-Daman Model School. This cool breeze is an indication of your entrance into the Adezai area. Adezai is the village of the Mohmond Afghans (popularly known as Khalil Mohmond, or Kuz Mohmand, or plain Mohmand of Peshawar), situated at a distance of 25 KM on south west side of the Peshawar City. Adezai is situated at +33° 47′ 20.58″N, +71° 34′ 37.20″E.It is at a height of 1607 ft from the sea level. A link road (Sherekera Road) from main Peshawar-Kohat road near Matanni bye-pass, leads to Adezai.
The village has two sections; the anterior part is called “Wali zai”, while the posterior section is “Khalizai”.The length of the area of Adezai is longer than its breadth. Adezai consists of a very vast area. Its boundary starts from the village Sherekera in the south and stretches northward on a piece of 10miles land and it ends at the boundary of the Village Badabher. Adezai has a long and vast land of the Village Matanni on its west side, Darra Adamkhel and Kala Khel on its southwest side, Village Paasani on its south side and villages of Yousaf Khel, Bagh Mian Khel and Maryam Zai are situated on its eastern side.
According to the records of the revenue department, Adezai is not a single entity, rather it consists of two villages naming; Wali zai and Khali zai. Its number in the provincial revenue department is 265-266.
POPULATION: - According to the census of the 1998 the population of Village Adezai was 19,438 persons. The number of total registered voter is 8,438.The entire village is part of the union council Adezai No.61.This union council lies in the jurisdiction of the town 4 of the Peshawar district. Adezai is a part of constituency no 4 of the national assembly and 10 of the provincial assembly.
RELIGION/SECT: – Adezwals are Sunni of the Hanafi sect. Most of them were followers of the Barelvi faction. But over the last two decades, the number of the followers of Deobandi faction has increased. There is a Daral-ulum Siddiqiya, near Government higher secondary school Adezai. This Daral-ulum also has a facility for religious education of women.
GENEALOGY AND BACKGROUND:- According to Taarikh-e- zila Peshawar , “Mabyar was the son of Khatoon who was the first wife of Mohmond.Razar was the son of Mabyar; whose first wife khodar gave birth to our forefathers Wali, Khalil and Habib.According to the land consolidation of Village Adezai in 1870 “ when land was distributed (according to the principals of wesh laid down by sheikh malli/milliin the period between 1485-90) among the sons of Mohmond , then the present day land of Adezai was given to our forefathers; Wali and Khalil. Wali and Khalil left their brothers in village Masho Khel and populated a village by the name of Adezai. They came to Adezai with their mother. Mother is called “Ade” a word of respect in Pashto and “Zai” mean son, so Adezai mean sons of Ade. Therefore, the very name of Adezai is derived from the word “Ade” mean sons of Adey. The people of Adezai are cousins of the Qara Khel Anezai in tappa Masho Khel.Taarikh-e- zila Peshawar has described the village Adezai as part of Tappa Mashukhel.
As the figure below shows that Khalil, Mohmond, and Daudzai belong to Ghoria Khel branch of Sarbanri Afghans. Among Mohmond sub tribes, Adezai, Mashukhel, and Masho Gagar together form Khudrezai 1 (خود ړیزي) and Khudrezai in turn belong to Dawezai sub branch of Mohmond.
1 (Booklet titled “Abdul Hameed baba” by Khwaja Muhammad Saail, page56, 1985).
Picture copied from book, “The Pathans” by Sir Olif Cairo.
There was no exchange of land and population of the people of our village with any other village of the area. However, it was a custom in Adezai village that people of Wali zai and Khali zai used to carry out exchange of their lands and population with one another periodically. But later the same custom ended and through sortition decision each section was granted the same land on which they were residing the last time.
Since the time our village has been populated by the Adezwals, it never happened to be deserted. There is a sayyed family in our village. One person among this family was blessed with miracles. He prayed for the village and as a result, a natural spring flowed out at shengvi khwar (stream).A water canal flowed from the same spring and further divided into two sub canals (Wala or wale), irrigated village lands and proved to be very beneficial. The name of that noble man was “Pir Mian deen” revered as Pir Mian Deen neka by the Adezwals. As a token of gratification, the elders of the village Adezai granted him agricultural land and the right of use of irrigation water for 24 hours after each 12 days. That land is now under the custody of his heirs, the piraans.The famous Pirano stop in Khali Zai section refers to the same sayyed family.
GARHIS (Settlements):- There was a small Settlement/garhai opposite to Kandao (FR, Peshawar) village, constructed by Darya Khan of Kandey khadu Khel, Adezai. But the later has been ruined over the period of time.
Another Baanda/Garhai is Garhi Mian Zaid Gul. Mian Zaid Gul was from Sayyed family and therefore, farmers of Adezai gifted him some land. He populated the same land and it is now known by the name of “Mian Garhai”.
During the Durrani era, the People of Bazid Khel had migrated due to unknown reason from their native village in Darra Adam Khel. People of Walizai section handed over a part of their agricultural land to the same people .They populated the same land and established a village on it which is now known by the name of “Baanda Bazid Khel” or simply “Baanda”.The land of Baanda is under their capture and those people are not the real possessor of that land.
Fort Mackeson:-This fort was constructed by the then Deputy Commissioner of Peshawar Colonel Fredrick Mackeson during the early period of the British era in the subcontinent. This fort is situated towards south at “Khandaq locality” of the village Adezai. This place is 1.5 miles away from the main village of Adezai. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India2 , “ Formerly an important frontier fort in Peshawar district north west to command the north west province, built to command the north entrance to the Kohat pass, from which it is 3 ½ miles distant. It consisted of a pentagon, an inner keep, and a horn-work with accommodation for 500 troops”. The same fort was made up of mud. People wrongly called it “mekshan Garh”, which later changed to “Keshan Garh Qila”.This is worth to remember that this fort used to work as Cantonment and British soldiers used to live here with their families. Now this fort is under the possession of the frontier constabulary.
2Imperial Gazetteer of India (provincial series) North West Frontier Province, 1908. P. 162
Feuds and fights: - Tribal feuds are a part and parcel of life of the pashtoon people and people of Adezai are no exception to it. As a qaum (tribe), people of Adezai have fought several battles. Some of them were fought in recent times and some belong to the past. A brief detail of these fights is as under:
1)DARYA KHAN & SIKHS:- The people of Adezai can feel proud over the valour shown by their leader and hero, naming Darya Khan of Kandey Khadu Khel, who led his tribe to fight against Sikh army at Sikh dheri near Adezai Khwar, which is also wrongly called as “Da Pasano Khwar” or Farsh dand.He declined to pay tax or tribune to the Sikh government of Hari Singh Nalwa.To avoid the wrath of the Sikh government, he and his confederates took refuge in Kandao(FR,Peshawar) .At last he was arrested and kept in jail at Rawalpindi. Later he escaped from jail and went to Kabul along with his family.
As is evident from Tarekh-e-Peshawar and other books of history, that among villages of present day district Peshawar, only people of Adezai resisted the Sikh Army.Infact, there was One Darya Khan who joined hands with Aimal Khan and fought the Moghul Army, and therefore Khushal Khan Khattak praised him for their heroism. But Darya Khan of Adezai was unlucky that he did not find any Khushal Khan Khattak to narrate his bravery in poems. Even majority of Adezwal don’t know gallantry shown by their forefathers under the leadership of Darya Khan. The place where Darya Khan fought with Sikh Army is called Sikh dheri and the proposed dam was also to be named as “Sikh Dheri Dam”.Ex-nazim Adezai Mr. Abdul Malik (late) had demanded the government to rename the proposed dam as “Darya Khan Dam”. Unfortunately, the construction of the dam has gone into oblivion.
According to Tarekh- i- Peshawar, Darya Khan did not return to Adezai, but his family returned. His burial place is unknown in Afghanistan. History department of the Peshawar University needs to carry out research on Sikh rule in present day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and also on unsung heroes like Darya Khan of Adezai.
2) There is a chest to chest narration from elders of Adezai that in the past centuries people from adjoining Afridi tribes used to invade people and land of Adezai. So Adezwal formed Lashkar who used to patrol the border area of Adezai on horses back to prevent entry of Afridi people at night.
3) There is another chest to chest tale from elders that there was a dispute between Darra Adam khel Afridi tribes and Adezai people on demarcation of boundary. There used to be clashes and bloodshed on the same matter. In a similar clash a person from Darra Adam Khel got fatally wounded. On return to home, he requested his people to demarcate that place as boundary where his death occured.This permanently settled the dispute between two qaums.
4) Incident of Jamal Khan3,4 :-There is another very sad historical incident of our Mohmand qaum where Adezwals were involved. It is said that Jamal Khan, who was khan of Masrezo Mohmand was very cruel. This resulted migration of the people of Mashogagar to Adezai.Adezwaals, and people of Mashukhel, and masho gagar joined hands against Jamal Khan and his brothers and burnt them alive along with their family members. Several poets of the Mohmand qaum, like Rehman Baba, Abdul Hameed Mashukhel, and Moazullah Mohmand have hinted towards that incident of the past in their poems.Abdulqadar Khan khattak has praised the Mohmonds for this.
3 Dr. Sayyed Anwar ul Haq in Muqaddima of the poetry book “Dur aw marjan” by Abdul Hameed Baba.
4 Khwaja Muhammad Saail “Abdul Hameed Baba” .1985, Pp 47-62.
5) In recent past (1970s), a fight between Adezai Qaum and Maryamzai took place in 1973.The bone of contention was the land of Adezai being captured by the maryamzai people. One person of Adezai naming Abdul Manaf lost his life in the same clash.
6) Clashes have occurred between people of Matanni and Adezai on water dispute. It resulted in death of several valuable lives from both sides. Recent clashes took place in 2000. These days the relations between the two villages are normal.
1) There is a 600 years old tree of Peeple at Kandey Babukhel, a tree so big that it has almost covered whole of the mohallah of Babukhel. Before partition, Hindus believed it to be sacred.
2) There is another very old 150 years old ber tree at the house of Rahamdil ustad (late) of Kandey Moghul Khel.
3) Some old fashioned, very tall buildings in their original shape could be found here.
Major Agricultural Products: – Wheat, Maize, Colocasia, Cauliflower, Tomato, Onion, and round Gourd are major crops of the village Adezai. There are several shepherd families in the village who have abandoned their ancestral profession of rearing sheeps.
Cottage Industries: – Cottage industry does not exist. There are several weaver families (Jolagaan) in Kandey Misrikhel, Umer Khel, and Jalal Khel.Their elders used to weave and sell clothes for their livelihood, but long ago they have also abandoned their ancestral profession. Adezwals are agriculturists and they also prefer jobs in Frontier constabulary and Armed forces of Pakistan.
Markets: – There are two markets; one at Gotperai (Ittehad market), and the other at pirano stop of our village.
1) Irrigation Dam: – The people of Adezai irrigate their lands from natural spring and tube wells. However, when there is drought, water table falls in the springs and tube wells. There was a plan on files for construction of a small irrigation dam at Sikh dheri site of village Adezai. Unfortunately, it seems that the provincial government has nullified it due to unknown reasons.
2) Hospital for livestock: – There is need for an animal hospital at the village level. The village people have to take their animals to Matanni for treatment and artificial insemination.
3) Lack of staff at BHU, Adezai:-BHU, Adezai is often lacks a qualified Doctor. So to address the problems of the people a qualified doctor needs to be appointed here.
4) Natural Gas facility: – This is also a big problem faced by the Adezwals. They have to depend on cutting of green trees for fuel purpose.
Famous Graves:- Khaista Khan Baba, da kasey Shaheed, Musafar Shaheed, Akhund Neka, Pir Mian deen neka, Shaheed Baba at Shaheed stop, Sheikha nya(A grave of a lady buried on a mound near Sadar talaao, Government higher secondary School Adezai) are some of the sacred graves of the noble men and a noble lady of village Adezai respectively. People of Adezai and adjoining villages keep them in great esteem and often visited by their followers.
Level of education: – Government of Pakistan has established several schools for boys and girls of the village Adezai. There is a government higher secondary school established and working since 1968.Several schools are also working in private sector. It is difficult to estimate the percentage of educated people. However, one can say that male education ratio would be 70% and female education ratio would be 35-40%.
During the decade of 1980, there was only a single MBBS Doctor (Dr.Jehanzeb of Kandey Moghul Khel) and few diploma engineers and graduates. Today there are more than a dozen of medical male and female doctors belonging to village Adezai .There are now several engineers, Agriculturists, Business graduates, Bankers, eminent Pashto language poets and famous teachers who belong to village Adezai A separate directory would be needed to enlist the prominent educated class of village Adezai.
Law and order situation: – Unfortunately our village has also fallen prey to the “great game” being played in our region. More than 100 people of village Adezai, including ex-Nazim Haji Abdul Malik have lost lives in this nameless war. We hope this war would end soon and normalcy and peace would be established on our Pakland.
Glossary of Terms:-
01) Adezwal: – It is a new term introduced by Mr. Sirajul Haq (Siraj adezwal).This term is being used for inhabitants of village Adezai. He used and popularized this term for the first time
2) Badabher: – The village of Badabher is situated eastwards at a distance of 14 Km from Adezai on main Peshawar-Kohat road. They also belong to Mohmond or khalil Mohmond clan.
3) Khalil Momand/Mohmond: – The Mohmond living in the mountains is called upper or bar mohmond.Upper Mohmond lives in Mohmond Agency.Kuz Mohmond live in the plains of the Peshawar District. They are situated towards south west corner of the district Peshawar, south of the Bara stream5.That is why they are also termed as Bara Mohmond or Khalil Mohmond due to their kinship with Khalil tribe. The villages of Kuz Mohmond are mainly situated on Peshawar Kohat road , between Peshawar city and the border of Darra Adam Khel afridi.Famous villages of the Kuz Mohmond are landi arbab,Bahadar kaley, Masrezi,Surizai, Badabher, Masho, Masho Khel, Adezai, Bazi Khel, Suleiman Khel, etc.
4) Khali zai: – Khali Zai is posterior sub section of village Adezai. It is also called as “lamda or/lwanda ghaara”. This is further subdivided into bar shpagoon and Kuz shpagoon.
5) Kala Khel: – Village of Kala Khel is situated west of Village Adezai.Its inhibitors belong to Afridi tribe Adam Khel.Kala Khel is a tribal area and falls under jurisdiction of Khyber Agency. The neighboring Darra Adam Khel falls under the jurisdiction of FR, Kohat.
6) Khoh-i-Daman: – Koh-i-Daman means “hem of the mountain”. The entire area of F.R Peshawar and adjoining villages of District Peshawar, ranging from Sherekera to Badabher, including Adezai-Matanni are collectively termed as Koh-i-Daman. A private English public school of this area also holds the same name.
6) Ladawar of Matanni: – A water course or channel that divides Adezai & Matanni villages and through which monsoon rain water flows.
7) Maryam Zai: – Maryam Zai village is situated towards east of Adezai Village. Most of its people belong to Awan Qaum/tribe.
8) Masho Khel: – Masho Khel is a small village towards west of village Badabher and belong to Khudredzai clan of Mohmond. Adezai, Masho Khel and Masho Gagar belong to Khudredzai clan of Mohmond.
8) Matanni: – Famous village of Matanni is situated on the main Peshawar-Kohat Road. It is believed that people of Matanni have migrated from “Mattoon”, a place in Afghanistan. The bazaar (market place) of Matanni is famous for shopping and a centre place for the near by villages.
9) Paasani: – A small village situated south of Adezai.Most of its people belongs to Mohmond tribe. Others include ghaljian, and khataks.
10) Tareekh e Peshawar: – The book, Tareekh-e-Peshawar (History of Peshawar) compiled and finalized in 1874 by Munshi Gopal Das extra assistant settlement commissioner Punjab on the orders of his Settlement Commissioner (A.G. Hastings) of Punjab is a landmark work. Gopal Das was assisted by 590 member’s secretarial staff holding subordinate office positions in the Settlement Commissionerate. The work was compiled between1869 to 1874 and printed later at the Kohinoor Press in Lahore.
11) Wali Zai: – This is anterior subsection of Village Adezai; also locally called as “Ocha ghaara”.It is further subdivided into “Aka Khel” and “Sadar Khel”.
12) Yousaf Khel: – Yousaf Khel is a small village situated south east of Adezai.Elders of Adezai describes Yousaf khels as their near relatives.
End Note: - I compiled this article and took help and guidance from various sources and people. Thanks are due to Mr.Sirajul Haq who persuaded me to write this article. I am hopeful, my fellow adezwal and all those reading this article will find it very informative. I am looking forward for their suggestions and hope they would share the informations they possess about Village Adezai.I apologize to those entire if any content of this article hurt them in any way. I am looking forward for your positive suggestions.
- Akhtar Munir is a writer of this article. He belongs to village Adezai, Kandey Moghul Khel.He is an agrarian by profession, and holds M.sc (hons) degree in Agricultural sciences.
- E-mail: email@example.com